Why Gravel Is So Useful In Domestic Landscaping


What is gravel?

Gravel is an accumulation of rock fragments categorized in size from granule to boulder. It is sub-categorized into granular gravel and pebble gravel. Granular gravel is typically made up of rocks from .08 to .2 in diameter. Pebble gravel consists of rocks that range from .2 to 2.5 inches in diameter.

YouTube Preview Image

Production of gravel

Large gravel deposits occur naturally and are a result of weathering and erosion of larger rocks. Rivers and the action of waves tend to create large accumulations of gravel. When natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, it is created by crushing and quarrying larger rocks. Quarrying and crushing usually produces gravel made out of sandstone, limestone, or basalt. A quarry can otherwise be known as a gravel pit.

Types of gravel and uses

Creek rock is generally rounded, smooth, semi polished stones that are dredged from river and creek beds. It is often mixed with concrete for sidewalks, or used alone for walkways. Crushed stone is mechanically crushed that is typically produced from limestone or granite. It is widely used in concrete and road surfaces. Pea gravel consists of small rounded stones and can be used as filler for walkways, concrete aggregate, and as an aquarium substrate. These are just a few types of commonly used gravel, as the variations are endless.

Gravel in Portland Oregon

There are high quantities of locally sourced gravel near Portland Oregon. As a result, the thriving industry of gravel supply has become a competitive market in the region. The most common types of gravel sourced in the Portland area are pea gravel, river rocks, and various types of crushed gravel and concrete. Residents in the area find river rocks to be an aesthetically pleasing addition to their landscape as well as an efficient drainage substrate. Use of river rocks in landscaping deters weed growth, and is commonly used as decorative flower bed borders. Pea gravel is less decorative than river rock, but can be used for same purposes. In Oregon this type of gravel is highly popular due to its excellent drainage capabilities and budget price. This makes it easier to buy large quantities for walkways and other extensive projects. Crushed gravel is less decorative than river rocks or pea gravel, but offers excellent stability. It is often used as a base for pavers, retaining walls and terraces.

Crushed Recycled Concrete

Residents of the Pacific Northwest are environmentally conscious. As a result, the recycled concrete supply business is a growing industry. Construction and demolition projects can create large quantities of building material waste that usually gets placed in a landfill. To create a lower impact on the environment, these wasted building materials can be turned into crushed concrete to be repurposed. This material is commonly used in walkways, drainage aggregate, and flower beds.

Wikinews interviews Frank Moore, independent candidate for US President

Saturday, March 1, 2008

While nearly all coverage of the 2008 Presidential election has focused on the Democratic and Republican candidates, the race for the White House also includes independents and third party candidates. These parties represent a variety of views that may not be acknowledged by the major party platforms.

Wikinews has impartially reached out to these candidates, throughout the campaign. We now interview independent Presidential candidate Frank Moore, a performance artist.

Large creature loose in London suburb

Tuesday, March 22, 2005

Police organized a search in the Sydenham Park area of south-east London after a local, Anthony Holder, was attacked by a 6ft long black animal while looking for his kitten in his back yard that borders a woodland.

Holder said the animal pounced, knocked him to the ground, and then he was “in its claws for about 30 seconds. Its teeth were out and I tried to defend myself and eventually I got the thing off my body.” Holder was scratched all over his body and suffered swelling and bruising to his hand and the back of his head. He called the police at about 2:15 am while the animal sat in the garden next door.

While Holder was being treated by paramedics, the Metropolitan Police conducted a search of the area. A citizen and a police officer saw the creature, believed by some to be a panther. Another officer also believed he saw the animal and reports it as approximately the size of a Labrador Retriever. The neighbourhood is being patrolled by an armed police response vehicle staffed by officers equipped with rifles and Taser stun guns.

Scotland Yard is currently seeking specialist advice from experts from the RSPCA and London Zoo. A spokeswoman said: “We are trying to establish exactly where the animal may have come from. In the meantime we are asking the public to be vigilant. If anyone does see the animal, do not approach it but dial 9-9-9 immediately.”

People are also being advised to keep pets indoors.

Sightings of big cats have increased in recent years. The notion of a large predator in London was initially dismissed by scientists, but evidence from footprints and droppings has led to other conclusions. The British Big Cat Society estimates 50 to 100 are currently loose across England. Livestock has supposedly been attacked a number of times. Farmers near Burford in Oxfordshire have offered a £5,000 reward for the capture of a large black creature suspected of killing livestock in the area. However, there have been virtually no human encounters.

Apple to hold media event on September 1, may update iPods and Apple TV

Friday, August 27, 2010

Apple Inc. will hold a music-centered event in San Francisco, California on September 1. It has been widely speculated that the company will introduce an updated line of iPod portable music players and a new Apple TV.

The company e-mailed invitations for the event to various media organizations on Wednesday. The message included a picture of a guitar and the time of the event. Apple did not release any information about what products would be involved.

Apple has released new iPods through previous similar events in September in anticipation of the holiday shopping season. This year, Apple may unveil a new iPod Touch with two cameras, similar to their recent iPhone 4 design. It will likely also update the iTunes music store and software.

Speculation about a new Apple TV is mixed. While many blogs are reporting that a refresh of the device will be announced, analysts say that it is unlikely to happen during next Wednesday’s event. According to Reuters, sources are saying that Apple is negotiating with major television networks, including ABC and NBC, in order to provide shows for purchase on iTunes. However, they also reported that the deal has not been completed, and none of the companies involved have commented on the rumors.

It has also been rumored that Apple will introduce a new online music service. In 2009, Apple took over a company that allowed users to stream music online rather than download individual songs. Apple has not confirmed the rumors.

Last September’s media event saw the return of Apple CEO Steve Jobs after he took a break to undergo a liver transplant. This year, the event will be held in San Francisco’s Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, previously used by Apple in April for the unveiling of the iPad.

Entertaining Yourself With Funny Pictures Online

Submitted by: Adrianna Notton

A fun thing to do when you are bored is to look at funny pictures online. The internet is filled with all sorts of images and videos including those that are meant to make you laugh. There are many hours of fun on the web that can be had watching videos, cartoons, images, and reading blogs too. It is healthy to have a good laugh. Laughing at humorous graphics on the web is a healthy thing to do.

If you want an activity that is healthy and will bring some sunshine into your life then you should check out the humorous items on the web. There are many websites that will make you laugh. There is nothing like a good laugh that can bring you out of a bad mood. Most people find that when they can see something that makes them laugh they feel happier.

Experts have proven that looking at an image or listening to music can change your mood. Sad images and music can put a person in a sad mood. On the other hand, viewing happy images and listening to happy music can put a person in a happy mood. Images and sounds trigger emotional responses in the brain and central nervous system.

YouTube Preview Image

This is another example of the power of psychology. Everyone has the right to be happy. There are easy psychological techniques anyone can learn to help them be happier. Anyone can be happy when you simply apply the right exercises and tools. It is not difficult to learn these techniques. Looking at humorous images, watching cartoons, and famous comedic actors is a fantastic therapy. Laughing really will improve your mood and outlook on life.

The world has a lot of problems. Life can be difficult sometimes. People spend most of their time trying to deal with these hassles of everyday existence. Making fun of things, satire, cartoons, comics, jokes and other things that bring a smile to your face and help make you laugh are necessary for survival. For this reason, it is recommended that you try to have a good laugh at least three times a day.

Medical science has shown that people who are sick often get back to good health quicker if they watch comedies and cartoons on television. Laughter can be wonderful medicine. The human mind can be controlled in positive ways to make you feel happier and satisfied with life. Everyone deserves to have a good laugh everyday so they can live a happy life.

The internet is a wonderful tool that has improved life. It has brought amusement, entertainment, and knowledge to millions and millions of people around the world. Laughter is something that has improved the human condition over thousands of years. When you look at the great spiritual leaders of mankind, you will find they all had a good sense of humor.

If you find yourself looking at funny pictures online do not feel guilty. Laughing is a healthy habit that should be encouraged. Society needs to have people with a good sense of humor. The world is a better place when everyone has a good laugh everyday.

About the Author: Are you looking for

funny videos

? Then be sure to visit Jokeroo, one of the oldest video entertainment sites online, showcasing funny pictures, funny videos and

free online games




Permanent Link:


Wikinews interviews U.S. Green Party presidential candidate Cynthia McKinney

Friday, March 7, 2008

Wikinews held an exclusive interview with Cynthia McKinney, one of the candidates for the Green Party nomination for the 2008 U.S. presidential election.

McKinney is a former Democratic Congresswoman from Georgia. She was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1992 and held her seat for ten years until being defeated by Denise Majette in 2002. She was the first ever African American woman from her state to be elected to Congress.

We asked her why she made the recent switch to the Green Party. She replied, “Due to the importance of environmental issues, Green issues are the issues of today. The Ten Key Values ofthe Green Party stress us getting along with each other in harmony with the planet that gives us life.”

When asked about how she would handle Iraq she replied, “I would instruct the Joint Chiefs to draw up a plan for the orderly withdrawal of all U.S. troops from the country. I would dismantle our military bases in the area, and I would also demand that U.S. andother international corporations relinquish any claims to Iraqi oil orother resources and withdraw as well.”

McKinney is running for president because, basically, she thinks that “it’s time that the people win”.

US declares public health emergency over spread of swine flu

Sunday, April 26, 2009

Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano announced today at a news conference that the U.S. has declared a public health emergency in light of the swine flu outbreak. The total number of confirmed swine flu cases in the United States stands at 20.

Secretary Napolitano said that the United States’ declaration follows suit with the “standard operating procedure” of such an outbreak to make more government resources available to combat the disease. One direct result of the declaration is the government’s mobilization of approximately 12 million doses of Tamiflu to locations where the states can quickly access their share of the medication if needed.

Secretary Napolitano urged residents not to panic saying that the government is issuing a “declaration of emergency preparedness.” Secretary Napolitano added, “Really that’s what we’re doing right now. We’re preparing in an environment where we really don’t know ultimately what the size of seriousness of this outbreak is going to be.”

John Brennan, a Homeland Security assistant, added that “at this point, a top priority is to ensure that communication is robust and that medical surveillance efforts are fully activated.”

This afternoon, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg reported that 8 students from the St. Francis Prepatory School in Queens, New York have contracted the swine flu. All in all, more than 100 students from that high school were absent last week with flu-like symptoms.

Meanwhile, public health officials in Ohio today announced one confirmed case of swine flu in the state. Thus far, California has reported 7 confirmed cases of swine flu, while Kansas and Texas have each reported two confirmed cases.

At the same news conference Dr. Richard Besser, the acting director from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), said to expect additional cases of swine flu to be reported in the short term. Dr. Besser added that the U.S. could also start seeing cases of the disease where the effects are more dramatic: “We’re going to see more severe disease in this country”. So far, no one in the U.S. has died from swine flu.

Ousted Honduran president says crisis deal has failed

Friday, November 6, 2009

An aide to ousted Honduran President Manuel Zelaya said that a deal designed to end the country’s political crisis has failed, after interim leader Roberto Micheletti announced the formation of a new cabinet.

Micheletti said late on Thursday that he is installing a national unity government without the participation of Zelaya, who has declined to name any cabinet members. The two signed an agreement last week to resolve the four-month political standoff. A new government was set to begin Thursday.

Zelaya warned on Thursday the accord was at risk of collapsing unless the Honduran Congress held a vote to restore him to power immediately to serve out his term that ends in January. Honduras elects a new president on November 29.

Congress must vote on Zelaya’s restitution, but has not yet done so. The recently signed pact does not stipulate a deadline for the Congressional vote.

The United States, a major broker in the mediation efforts, said this week the next step in the political crisis is up to Honduras. The governments of several countries have threatened not to recognize the presidential elections if Zelaya is not first returned to power.

Zelaya was ousted in a military-backed coup in June, but returned to Honduras in September, where he has taken refuge in the Brazilian embassy in Tegucigalpa.

Surgeons reattach boy’s three severed limbs

Tuesday, March 29, 2005A team of Australian surgeons yesterday reattached both hands and one foot to 10-year-old Perth boy, Terry Vo, after a brick wall which collapsed during a game of basketball fell on him, severing the limbs. The wall gave way while Terry performed a slam-dunk, during a game at a friend’s birthday party.

The boy was today awake and smiling, still in some pain but in good spirits and expected to make a full recovery, according to plastic surgeon, Mr Robert Love.

“What we have is parts that are very much alive so the reattached limbs are certainly pink, well perfused and are indeed moving,” Mr Love told reporters today.

“The fact that he is moving his fingers, and of course when he wakes up he will move both fingers and toes, is not a surprise,” Mr Love had said yesterday.

“The question is more the sensory return that he will get in the hand itself and the fine movements he will have in the fingers and the toes, and that will come with time, hopefully. We will assess that over the next 18 months to two years.

“I’m sure that he’ll enjoy a game of basketball in the future.”

The weight and force of the collapse, and the sharp brick edges, resulted in the three limbs being cut through about 7cm above the wrists and ankle.

Terry’s father Tan said of his only child, the injuries were terrible, “I was scared to look at him, a horrible thing.”

The hands and foot were placed in an ice-filled Esky and rushed to hospital with the boy, where three teams of medical experts were assembled, and he was given a blood transfusion after experiencing massive blood loss. Eight hours of complex micro-surgery on Saturday night were followed by a further two hours of skin grafts yesterday.

“What he will lose because it was such a large zone of traumatised skin and muscle and so on, he will lose some of the skin so he’ll certainly require lots of further surgery regardless of whether the skin survives,” said Mr Love said today.

The boy was kept unconscious under anaesthetic between the two procedures. In an interview yesterday, Mr Love explained why:

“He could have actually been woken up the next day. Because we were intending to take him back to theatre for a second look, to look at the traumatised skin flaps, to close more of his wounds and to do split skin grafting, it was felt the best thing to do would be to keep him stable and to keep him anaesthetised.”

Professor Wayne Morrison, director of the respected Bernard O’Brien Institute of Microsurgery and head of plastic and hand surgery at Melbourne’s St Vincent’s Hospital, said he believed the operation to be a world first.

Two Iraqi women, one pregnant, killed by US soldiers

Friday, June 2, 2006

Two women, one of them about to give birth, were shot dead by US forces as they rode in a car headed toward a maternity hospital in Samarra, 60 miles north of Baghdad, according to witnesses and Iraqi police Capt. Laith Mohammed.

Nabiha Nisaif Jassim, 35, and her 57-year-old cousin, Saliha Mohammed Hassan, were killed by the gunfire, according to the Associated Press. Jassim, a mother of two, was pregnant with her third child; doctors at a nearby hospital tried unsuccessfully to save the baby.

Khalid Nisaif Jassim told reporters that he was rushing his sister to the hospital for childbirth. “I was driving my car at full speed because I did not see any sign or warning from the Americans. It was not until they shot the two bullets that killed my sister and cousin that I stopped.

“God take revenge on the Americans and those who brought them here,” he added. “They have no regard for our lives.”

A US military statement released Friday disputed the account. “A local national sedan entered a clearly marked prohibited area near coalition troops at an observation post,” the statement read. “As the vehicle neared the troop location and failed to stop despite repeated visual and auditory signals, disabling shots were fired into the vehicle. The vehicle stopped, changed direction, and quickly departed the area.”

The e-mailed statement to the Associated Press also expressed regret for the loss of life, noting that “coalition forces go to great lengths to prevent them.”

The Washington Post reported that the women’s bodies were “wrapped in sheets and lying on stretchers outside the Samarra General Hospital before being taken to the morgue, while residents pointed to bullet holes on the windshield of a car and a pool of blood on the seat”.

The US military has increased the number of investigations into charges of misconduct against US troops, most notably following the alleged mass murder of as many as 24 civilians in the town of Haditha, west of Baghdad. Initially, 15 civilians and eight insurgents were reported dead in gunfire following a roadside bombing that killed a US Marine. Military spokesman Major-General William Caldwell said, “there are three or four (investigations) at least at this time” and that they are in “the first stages.”